are produced by inhalation and/or absorption through the skin. GB can be
detected and decontaminated by using the same procedures as described for
d. Nerve Agent (GD). Nerve agent Soman (GD) is a colorless liquid that
gives off a colorless vapor. It is the most poisonous of the G-Agents. The
physiological effect of GD is essentially the same as that of GA and GB.
The addition of agent thickeners increases GD persistency and hazard. The
usual thickened form of GD is designated TGD. Detection and decontamination
of GD are accomplished by using the same procedures as described for GA.
e. Nerve Agent (GF). GF is a slightly volatile liquid that is almost
insoluble in water.
It enters the body primarily through the respiratory
tract but is also highly toxic through the skin and digestive tract.
Detection and decontamination of GF are accomplished by using the same
procedures as described for GA.
be employed in the form of colorless gases and liquids. The blister agents
are used primarily for casualty effects. They may also be used to restrict
use of terrain, slow movements, and hamper use of material and
installations. These agents affect the eyes and lungs and blister the skin.
During World War I, mustard (HD) was the only blister agent in major use.
It was recognized by a distinctive odor and had a fairly long duration of
have been developed which are odorless and vary in duration of
effectiveness. Most blister agents are insidious in action there is little
or no pain at the time of exposure except with Lewisite(L) and phosgene
oxime(CX), which cause immediate pain on contact.
The development of
casualties is somewhat delayed.
CX produces a wheal (similar to a bee
sting) rather than a water blister, which the other blister agents produce.
Protection from blister agents is extremely difficult.
a. Blister Agent (HD). Blister agent HD is a colorless to pale yellow
liquid with a garlic-like odor.
HD is used as a delayed-action casualty
agent. First symptoms usually appear four to six hours after contamination
The higher the concentration, the shorter the interval of
time from the exposure to the first symptoms; however, some individuals have
shown first symptoms in time periods ranging from 24 hours to 12 days. HD
acts first as a cell irritant and finally as a cell poison on all tissue
(1) Physiological Action of HD. The physiological action of HD may
be classified as local and systemic.
The local action results in
conjunctivitis or inflammation of the