Large-area Smoke Screens
Large-area smoke screens produced by smoke generators are normally employed to conceal --
Road and bridge complexes along the main supply routes.
Artillery positions (including gun flashes).
The construction of battle positions.
Troop and vehicular assembly areas.
Troop movements (including attacks and withdrawals).
River-crossing sites and bridge construction.
Small-area Smoke Screens
Small-area smoke screens produced by the limited use of smoke generators are normally employed
to conceal --
The recovery of wounded personnel.
The recovery of damaged equipment.
Patrol activities (exit and entry through friendly lines).
Assaults on strong points.
The breaching of friendly or enemy minefields and barriers.
The relief of combat units.
Airstrips and helicopter pads.
Areas of main supply routes subject to enemy ground observation.
Specific areas of the forward edge of the battle area.
The landing of air assault units.
Either large-area or small-area smoke screens may be used to provide deception. Screens are
established over unoccupied areas in order to confuse the enemy regarding friendly positions and plans.
Smoke screens produced by smoke generators may extend 1.6 to 6.4 kilometers (1,600 to 6,400
meters) depending on limiting conditions. The four main limiting or governing factors in smoke
operations are wind, weather conditions, terrain, and fuel and fog oil supplies. These four main factors
are discussed below.
Wind. There are many different types of winds that affect deliberate smoke operations. Steering
winds have the greatest influence. Steering winds blow between 6 meters and 200 meters above the
ground and tend to move smoke screens in one direction.
Once released, smoke moves to the level of the steering wind. Smoke produced on the ground
rises, and smoke produced in the air usually falls. Wind speed has no direct effect on the altitude at
which smoke finds its steering wind level. It does affect the distance smoke must travel before reaching
that level. This distance increases with increased wind speeds. Turbulence influences the height of the
steering wind. When turbulence is