PART A - DECAY CALCULATIONS
The aftermath of a nuclear attack will present many obstacles to the
continuation of effective operations within the radiologically contaminated
environment. Fallout can have a major influence on tactical operations in
the following ways:
It can produce casualties within large areas outside the area of
initial effects of the nuclear burst. It is potentially the most
important casualty-producing effect of a nuclear weapon.
It can restrict unprotected troops from vast areas beyond the
area of initial casualty effects.
It can increase the logistical problems of affected units.
communication lines for critical periods.
and other service efforts are required to decontaminate fallout
It can incapacitate personnel while leaving installations intact
and materiel that can be used later.
The surface burst is potentially the greatest casualty producer because of
fallout. The surface burst can produce many times the number of casualties
produced by other bursts based on the yield of the weapon. Whole body gamma
radiation is the primary personnel hazard from the fallout. It is essential
for commanders to have a means of predicting the anticipated total dose of
radiation to which personnel will be exposed as they pass through or occupy
the fallout area.
evenly over the ground.
An individual standing in a level portion of a
contaminated area will thus be receiving radiation from all directions.
However, because of absorption by the air and other factors, essentially all
radiation the individual receives comes from a circular area 200 meters in
radius around the location.
About half the radiation the individual
receives comes from a circular area 10 meters in radius.
a. The Fallout Area.
Fallout areas will be largest of the contaminated areas produced on the
An important aspect of fallout is that the direction of
fallout from ground zero is based upon winds aloft, as well as upon surface
winds. Thus, the actual location of