Forces must be prepared to survive massive chemical attacks and to
PART A - CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMICAL AGENTS
The ability of a man to function in a chemical environment is directly
available and the level of acclimation achieved in wearing that
equipment. This equipment consists of the protective mask, hood, gloves,
overgarment, and footwear covets.
All chemical agents are affected by the environment. Weather conditions
are certain times and conditions where they can be employed most
The most favorable conditions usually occur at night,
during early morning, at dusk, and when there is a heavy overcast with
light, steady winds.
Smooth terrain is usually favorable for the
employment of chemical agents than rough terrain, and low places are
generally more favorable than higher elevations, since the agents tend to
linger and settle in the low places.
Chemical Agent Characteristics.
The persistency, duration of effectiveness, of a chemical agent is
dissemination, and the type and condition of the terrain, material, and
equipment on which the agent is deposited.
The terms "persistent and
nonpersistent agents" express the relative duration of effectiveness of
chemical agents in the area of release. These terms do not refer to the
duration of the effects of the agents on personnel.
a. Persistent Agents.
If a Threat chemical attack consists of liquid droplets from airburst
artillery munitions, bomblets, bulk-filled missile warheads, or spray
from aircraft, persistent agents probably have been used. These agents
are used to contaminate equipment and terrain and to cause casualties by
the skin absorption route.
b. Nonpersistent Agents.
Nonpersistent agents are probably being used if a Threat attack consists
of vapors and aerosols from point-detonation or