Classification. Once you understand the features of a chemical agent,
the next step is classifying chemical agents and miscellaneous related
to: physical state (including degree of volatility), use, and physiological
are terms used to describe the
tactical use of chemical agents and should not be used as terms to
technically classify them.
solids, liquids, or gases. To a certain extent the state in which an agent
normally exists determines its use, duration of effectiveness, physiological
b. Chemical Agent Use.
Chemical agents may be grouped according to use
incapacitation, serious injury, or death when used in field concentrations.
(2) Incapacitating Agents.
Agents that produce physiological or
mental effects, or both that may persist for hours or days after exposure,
rendering individuals incapable of concerted effort in the performance of
their assigned duties. Complete recovery of incapacitating agent casualties
is expected without medical treatment. (See Table 2-1 on page 2-14.)
c. Chemical Compound Use.
Chemical compounds may be grouped according
to use as follows:
(1) Training Agents and Compounds.
Authorized for training.
(2) Screening and Signaling Smokes.
Screening smokes are compounds
that produce an obscuring smoke when burned hydrolyzed, or atomized; they
are used to limit observation and to reduce the effectiveness of aimed fire.
Signaling smokes are similar to screening smokes, except that signaling
smokes generally are colored and are used for visual communication.
standard colors are green, red, violet and yellow.
d. Physiological Action.
Physiological actions of chemical agents are
(1) Choking Agents.
Chemical agents causing irritation and
inflammation of bronchial tubes and lungs.
Their primary physiological
action is limited to the respiratory tract, with injury extending to the
deepest part of the lungs.