Figure 1. Smoke haze.
Figure 2. Smoke blanket.
friendly units. A smoke haze increases the survivability
simultaneously employed to degrade enemy command
of friendly forces without reducing visibility of friendly
forces to such an extent that the mission cannot be
of reducing the thermal effects of nuclear weapons.
accomplished. It is produced by smoke generators and
US forces use smoke in one or more of the ways just
A smoke blanket (Figure 2) is used primarily over
Deny the enemy observation.
friendly areas to screen them from enemy visual
Reduce effectiveness of enemy target acquisition
observation and hinder enemy aerial observation. A
smoke blanket can also be used to hinder enemy visual
Restrict nap-of-the-earth and contour approaches
precision bombing. A smoke blanket may restrict
movement and activity within the screen, thus hampering
Disrupt enemy movement, operations, and
operations of friendly troops. The smoke blanket is
Create conditions to surprise the enemy.
A smoke curtain (Figure 3) is a dense vertical
Deceive the enemy.
development of smoke rather than a horizontal blanket
over an area. It is placed between friendly and enemy
Part B - Describe the Types of
positions. It is used to obscure or restrict enemy ground
observation of friendly positions and activities; it will not
prevent aerial observation. Artillery, mortars, grenades,
Smoke pots are essentially portable steel containers
and rockets are used for producing hasty smoke curtains.
filled with a smoke-producing agent. An essential
Smoke should be planned for and used during
difference between land-type smoke pots and floating
darkness and other periods of reduced visibility to further
smoke pots lies in the ratio of total bulk of the smoke pots
degrade enemy observation, particularly electro-optical
to bulk of smoke-producing agent. Floating smoke pots
devices not defeated by natural obscuration. Smoke
are not completely filled with agents; voids in the
increases the overall effectiveness of chemical and
container permit the pot to float in water.
conventional munitions (including scattering mines) by
The smoke pots in current use are the ABC-M5 and
masking their employment.
M4A2. Both smoke pots can be used on land. The
Similarly, the effects of smoke on enemy operations
are compounded when electronic warfare is