2. Build-up phase occurs when the smoke from the individual streamers begins to merge about 20 to 30
meters out from the smoke source, where the streamers begin to expand and join each other.
3. Uniform phase occurs after the smoke travels about 50 meters, the screen density becomes uniform. (The
same number of smoke particles exist in any part of the screen). The uniform phase of the screen usually
travels downwind about two to six kilometers. Local weather and terrain will dictate the exact length of
4. Terminal phase occurs when the large smoke particles settle to ground and the smaller ones dissipate into
the air. In this phase, the screen becomes so thin that it no longer degrades vision or electro-optical
TYPES OF SMOKE SCREENS
Use screening smoke in friendly operational areas between friendly and enemy forces. The three types of
smoke screens are the smoke blanket, the smoke haze, and the smoke curtain.
A smoke blanket is a dense, horizontal development of smoke. It is a heavy concentration used primarily
over friendly areas to screen friendly forces from enemy ground and aerial observation. The visibility inside a
smoke blanket ranges from 0 to 50 meters. Therefore, use extreme caution when you decide to employ a smoke
Exposure to heavy concentrations of fog oil smoke requires masking.
Therefore, smoke blankets may restrict movement and activity within the screen,
thus hampering the mission because of limited visibility.
A smoke haze is a light concentration of smoke placed over friendly areas to restrict accurate enemy
observation and fire but does not restrict movement to such a degree as a smoke blanket. You produce a smoke
haze in the same manner as a smoke blanket, but the difference is that the visibility in the smoke haze is 50 to 150
meters. Smoke hazes are used in both hasty and deliberate smoke operations to -
Conceal friendly forces from observation and observed fire.
Further reduce visibility and enemy detection during night operations.
Produce the same effects of smoke blankets.
A smoke curtain is a dense, vertical development of smoke between friendly and enemy positions which
prevents or restricts enemy ground observation but does not prevent enemy aerial observation.