PASSIVE DEFENSE MEASURES
Use passive defense measures to minimize the effects of an enemy attack. These measures include deception,
dispersion, concealment, and protection. Deception and concealment are accomplished by the proper use of
natural and manmade camouflage. Make maximum use of natural camouflage when siting personnel, equipment,
and supplies, and establishing entrance and exit avenues. Positions that are adequately concealed by natural
camouflage are supplemented by use of manmade camouflage.
When using camouflage, ensure that positions are concealed from aerial observation as well as ground
observation. Dispersion of individual positions, equipment, and supplies is another method of minimizing the
effects of enemy attack or infiltration. Positions not adequately spaced allow greater losses of personnel,
equipment, and supplies during an attack. Individual fighting positions must be at least 25 to 30 meters away
from generator positions.
Disperse supplies as much as possible. The larger the supply site, the greater the loss, if attacked by the
enemy. Protection consists of the construction of individual fighting positions, generator positions, and hasty
field fortifications. The recommended fortification for the generator operator is the one-man foxhole. Such an
emplacement will give the operator protection against blast, initial radiation, fallout, and conventional weapons
NOTE: The requirements for replacements and fortifications will be determined by the smoke planner. Many
smoke missions are hasty and of short duration. The time of stay in an area may not allow
construction of emplacements and fortifications.
Learning Event 2
SMOKE UNIT CAPABILITY AND CONSTRAINTS
A smoke unit must function while faced with changing conditions. Changes in situation, wind, weather,
equipment, and support require internal actions to successfully complete the mission. To compensate, the smoke
planner must identify, understand, and direct corrective measures in accordance with changes. Based on the
supported unit's visibility requirements, the capabilities of smoke generator units are provided at Table 1. The
actual spacing is determined by mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T); however, the chart
in Table 2 is good for planning purposes.