Figure 7. Land and sea breezes.
Learning Event 3
PREDICT EFFECTS OF WIND AND TEMPERATURE ON SMOKE
The effects of wind and temperature gradient have a considerable impact on the formation and spread of a
smoke cloud. In some situations, weather forecasting units provide this information. For the most part, the
smoke planner must use a visual means of determining this information. Weather conditions exerting the greatest
influence on smoke screens are wind direction, wind speed, turbulence, and temperature gradient.
NOTE: Wind speeds ideal for the production of smoke are 7 to 10 kmph.
Wind speed can be determined by visually observing the effects of wind. Based on certain visual effects, a
wind speed is determined. To assist the smoke planner, a chart (Figure 8) has been developed. This chart relates
observed conditions to wind speed. Use this chart as a handy reference when determining wind speed using