rerouting will normally extend the turn-around time of transportation
vehicles and reduce the gross transportation capability.
capabilities re reduced, it may be necessary to increase the storage of
supplies in order to prevent shortages due to the inability to resupply.
Supplies suspected of exposure to contamination will require detailed
inspection, testing, and if necessary, decontamination prior to use or
issue. Class I supplies and water sources suspected of contamination will
demand special attention. There will be an increase in requirements for the
replacement of supplies of any class that have been contaminated by enemy
nuclear munitions beyond the limits of reclamation. There will also be an
increase in replacement requirements because of the delay caused by
There will be increased need for decontamination equipment and supplies,
The main effects of a nuclear detonation are blast effects, initial and
residual radiation, heat, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP).
interfere with the mission, but decontamination is of use only for residual
radiation, mainly fallout.
Residual radiation consists of fallout and
Fallout is of more concern and is a more
important operational factor than induced radiation.
Fallout can produce casualties, delay movements, and deny terrain, if units
are unprepared to detect residual radiation, take protective measures from
the effects of it, and decontaminate as needed.
When a nuclear weapon
detonates at or near the surface of the earth, dust and debris which are
drawn into the air fall to the ground and create areas of lethal radiation.
Similar results can occur when the cloud from an air burst, at a fallout
safe height, about 50 meters for a 1 KT weapon, passes through rain, which
then carries radioactive particles to the earth.
The second type of residual radiation is neutron induced radiation.
Neutrons are produced in all nuclear bursts, and some are captured by
certain elements in the soil under the burst.
As a result, the elements
become radioactive. When this happens, Beta and Gamma radiation is emitted
from the radioactive soil. Neutron-induced radiation exists in a relatively
small circular pattern around ground zero.
Initial radiation and residual radiation do not damage material; they damage
human tissues. When radiation is absorbed by the body, it kills the cells.
The unit used to measure the amount of radiation absorbed by a person is the
How much radiation a soldier can receive and survive
depends on such factors as the soldier's weight, general state of health,
personal biochemistry, and whether the soldier has had previous exposure to